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Life of Baroness von Marenholtz-Buelow

Kindergartens in Russia

from Life of Baroness von Marenholtz-Buelow, by her niece the Baroness von Buelow

The introduction of the Froebel Method into Russia had meantime also begun. In the year 1865 the first foundation was laid by the kind hearted Grand Duchess Helene, who, at my aunt's request had sent three young Russian girls to Berlin to be trained. The Grand Duchess Helene, a princess memorable for her intellectual gifts and who did such an immense amount for the cause of education in Russia, graciously bestowed her friendship on my aunt. This was expressed in several clever letters, and the Grand Duchess never stayed in Berlin without immediately sending to my aunt, Baroness von Rahden, her lady in waiting for many years, as charming and clever as she was noble minded. Even when the Grand Duchess was passing occasionally through Berlin, my aunt had to go to the station, in order that the Grand Duchess might at least see her and speak with her for a few minutes.

My aunt writes in LABOUR, 1866:
"There is a Kindergarten in Odessa; men of note support 'The Cause.'...

Finally even in Finland, kindergartens were founded through the efforts of Pastor Zychnaeus.


By 1877, there was a Kindergarten, Froebel Society and teacher training school in St Petersburg and kindergartens in Moscow, Kiev, Omsk, Riga and Dorpat.

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